Posts Tagged ‘active directory

13
Sep
17

Getting Group Policy information via LDAP and SMB only

Sometimes it’s nice to know what’s happening under the hood, so let’s talk about how Group Policy is built, by tearing down how to access a particular policy. First, Group Policy is implemented in 2 parts, an LDAP part and a file part, delivered via SMB (CIFS if you’re oldschool) via DFS (Distributed FIle SYstem). Because the DFS part is replicated completely differently than the AD part, there’s a version number for each Group Policy object that’s stored in both places to keep them in sync. Most GPO engines remember the last version they applied by remembering the lowest of the 2 numbers (the LDAP version and the file version in the GPT.INI), if they don’t match.

Let’s talk about the “Default Domain Policy” which everyone will have one of. To find where that policy lives, you have to ask AD. The policy doesn’t actually live in the OU or Domain where it’s linked, so we have to back out the link:
ldap_search_s(ld, "dc=company,dc=com", 2, "(objectClass=organizationalUnit)", gpLink, base, &msg)
We’ll get back something like:

gPLink: [LDAP://CN={6AC1786C-016F-11D2-945F-00C04fB984F9},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=company,Dc=com;0]

Now, this is a multi-valued array, because multiple GPOs can be linked, in order, to a single OU or Domain or Site. But we only care about this one, so let’s see what’s in it:

ldap_search_s(ld, "CN={6AC1786C-016F-11D2-945F-00C04fB984F9},CN=Policies,CN=System,DC=company,DC=com", 2, "(objectClass=*)", gPCMachineExtensionNames;gPCFileSysPath;displayName;versionNumber, 0, &msg)

That’ll get us the Client Side Extensions (where the work actually happens), and what the file path to the files in the estension are stored, as well as the pretty name of the Group Policy Object:

displayName: Default Domain Policy;
gPCFileSysPath: \\child1.lwtest.corp\sysvol\child1.lwtest.corp\Policies\{31B2F340-016D-11D2-945F-00C04FB984F9};
gPCMachineExtensionNames: [{35378EAC-683F-11D2-A89A-00C04FBBCFA2}{53D6AB1B-2488-11D1-A28C-00C04FB94F17}{53D6AB1D-2488-11D1-A28C-00C04FB94F17}{D02B1F72-3407-48AE-BA88-E8213C6761F1}][{827D319E-6EAC-11D2-A4EA-00C04F79F83A}{803E14A0-B4FB-11D0-A0D0-00A0C90F574B}][{B1BE8D72-6EAC-11D2-A4EA-00C04F79F83A}{53D6AB1B-2488-11D1-A28C-00C04FB94F17}];
versionNumber: 15;

So we have the Default Domain Policy, as desired, but there are a bunch of client side extensions here. It’d be nice to know what they all do generically, without having to inspect each one.
And TechNet delivers on that desire: a list of all Client Side Extensions (in 2010) by GUID for easy reference. Now, I’m writing this, because someone asked where the Password Policy for the domain was stored. Well, that appears to be in: {827D319E-6EAC-11D2-A4EA-00C04F79F83A} Security, which our Default Domain policy applies. So, let’s go find the data!

One of the attributes in the list we last requested was gPCFileSysPath which returned a normal SMB share. If you browse to that share, you’ll see 3 objects:

  • A folder named “MACHINE”
  • A folder named “USER”
  • a file named “GPT.INI”

The GPT.INI will only have 2 lines:

[General]
Version=15

That’s the version number, that you can compare to the “versionNumber” property from the object. If they’re the same, you’re good. If not, your AD isn’t in sync.

In the “MACHINE” Folder are all the Computer Policy settings, and in the “User” folder are all the User Policy settings. Since we were talking about the Password Policy, which is affected on the SAM on the server, it’s a MACHINE setting. If you were to poke through, eventually you’d find this file:

\\domain\sysvol\domain\\MACHINE\Microsoft\Windows NT\SecEdit\GptTmpl.inf

with this data:

[Registry Settings]
MACHINE\System\CurrentControlSet\Services\Netlogon\Parameters\MaximumPasswordAge=4,15

And there’s your password policy, via LDAP and SMB only.

For a bit of additional background, when a computer processes this data, in this order, it will actually only apply CSEs from the gPCMachineExtensionNames that the computer recognizes and has DLLs (or whatever code, if it’s non-Microsoft vendor CSE) that can apply the CSE. This makes it technically safe to put multiple GPOs for multiple Operating sytsems on the same OU structure, knowing that the client computer won’t even bother downloading the files for un-recognized CSEs.

Now, that’s a lot of stuff to type into ldp.exe, how can we make a report on this a bit easier? Well, PowerShell could do it, but one of the products I work on is PowerBroker Open https://github.com/BeyondTrust/pbis-open and https://www.beyondtrust.com/products/powerbroker-identity-services-open/ which includes a CLI for browing ldap called “adtool”. With a bit of bash, we can list out all the group policy objects by name attached to a single OU:

$ cat report-gpos-by-ou.sh
GP=`adtool -a lookup-object --dn "$@" --attr gPLink`;
GPO=`echo $GP | sed -e 's/\[LDAP:\/\///g' -e 's/;[[:digit:]]\]/ /g'`
if [ -n "$GPO" ]; then
echo "";
echo "$OU";
for P in $GPO; do
G=`adtool -a lookup-object --dn "$P" --attr displayName`;
grep -q "$G" /tmp/gpos.txt;
if [ $? -ne 0 ]; then
echo $G >> /tmp/gpos.txt;
fi;
echo "$G";
done;
fi;
$ ./report-gpos-by-ou.sh "OU=Company,DC=domain,DC=com"
OU=Company,DC=domain,DC=com
PBUL Basics
GP-Preferences
$

26
Oct
12

Moving Computers (or Users or other objects) between OUs in AD

Joe and Jorge posted these back in 2005 and 2006, but they’re impossible for me to find in Google lately, possibly because of age:

http://blog.joeware.net/2005/07/17/48/
http://jorgequestforknowledge.wordpress.com/2006/01/05/creating-a-taskpad-and-delegating-several-admin-tasks/

In order to move an object in DS, you need the following three permissions:
1) DELETE_CHILD on the source container or DELETE on the object being moved
2) WRITE_PROP on the object being moved for two properties: RDN (name) and
CN (or whatever happens to be the rdn attribute for this class, i.e. ou for
org units).
3) CREATE_CHILD on the destination container.

Dmitri Gavrilov
SDE, Active Directory Core
This posting is provided “AS IS” with no warranties, and confers no rights.
Use of included script samples are subject to the terms specified at
http://www.microsoft.com/info/cpyright.htm

But, what, specifically does that mean?

  1. To provide these rights, after delegating control for the Creation and Deletion of the object (Computer/User/etc.), open ADSIEDIT.MSC and navigate to the OU in question.
  2. Right-click the OU and choose “Properties”
  3. Click on the “Security” tab.
  4. Click the “Advanced” button.
  5. Click the “Add” button to add a new security right.
  6. Enter the group you want to delegate the control to and click “OK”
  7. Choose the “Properties” tab.
  8. In the pulldown, choose “Descendent Computer Objects”
  9. Grant:
  1. Read and Write canonicalName
  2. Read and Write name
  3. Read and Write Name
31
May
12

DNS Configuration for AD

Many are the times we’ve run into DNS configuration problems with Microsoft AD.  After being asked for advice a few more times than normal this year, I’ve pulled together several emails for this list of “Troubleshooting Microsoft AD-integrated DNS” highlights below.  We’ll first cover the generic topics of checking the configuration of your server configuration,  then the configuration of the zones themselves. For each topic, we’ll do a checklist followed by an explanation.

Server configuration:

Checklist

  1. Is the server (Windows 2003 or higher) pointing to itself for primary DNS in the network configuration?
  2. If a standalone DC: Does the server have *no* secondary DNS in the network configuration?
  3. If there are multiple DCs: Does the server list only other DCs in the secondary DNS server list in the advanced network configuration?
  4. Does the server have proper forwarders in the DNS server configuration (to the parent domain or to the ISP, but not both)?
  5. In a command prompt, run the following:
    ipconfig /registerdns
    net stop netlogon
    net start netlogon
  6. Read DNS and System logs to make sure there are no issues being reported.
  7. wait 20 minutes

Explanation

One of the major problems we run into is that customers will put the ISP DNS servers in the network configuration on the DC, not in the DNS Forwarders list in the DNS Server configuration.  The DC *is* a DNS server.  It needs to talk to itself, so that it can register crucial DNS settings in its own database.  If its own database can’t find the information requested (such as www.google.com), then the DNS Server service is responsible for looking that data up, and then caching it so that it’s readily available for other clients, too.  This misconfiguration also has the problem of generating DDNS update requests back to the ISP DNS servers, which are ignored at best, and a security leak at worst (like for military/government installations).

I like to tell my Unix customers “the first rule of administering Active Directory is to go get another cup of coffee.” This forces them to take their hands off the keyboard and wait for cross-site replication (hopefully) before making another change.  It’s a good reminder for the seasoned Windows admins, as well.

Zone Configuration

Reverse Lookup Zones

We’ll cover reverse lookup zones before forward lookup zones, for two reasons: 1) customers screw up reverse lookup configuration much more often than forward lookup configuration ; 2) no SRV records in Reverse zones (normally).

Checklist

If you have non-Microsoft DNS servers or multiple AD domains in your environment

  1. Does the server have reverse DNS zones defined?
  2. Does any *other* server (in the DNS Forwarders configuration list) have the same reverse DNS zone defined?
  3. Do the defined reverse zones allow “unsecured dynamic updates”?
  4. Are all IP subnets in your network defined as reverse DNS zones on the primary DNS servers (the last forwarders in the network before the ISP)?
  5. Do you have aging and scavenging turned on in the server settings?  If so (you should), do you have all clients automatically renewing their records (Windows clients will by default)?

If you only have a single AD domain, or no non-Microsoft DNS servers

  1. Does the server have reverse DNS zones defined for all IP subnets (including IPv6) in your network?
  2. Do those reverse DNS zones allow dynamic updates?
  3. Is aging of old records enabled with sane no-refresh and refresh values  in the reverse zones?

Explanation

Each DNS Zone is a database.  There can only be one authoritative owner of the database, defined by the SOA record on the Zone.  Any other DNS servers get their information from this SOA, either by normal queries, or by zone transfer (AD replication does a kind of zone transfer).  If two servers are set up with the same zone (create 0.168.192.in-addr.arpa reverse DNS zone in dns1.contoso.com and ns1.worldwidetoys.com, for example), then there is no mechanism to transfer the information between those two servers.

For example: any individual client will only talk to the DNS server it’s configured to talk to (client1.contoso.com gets its DNS info from dns1.contoso.com and winxp1.worldwidetoys.com gets its information from ns1.worldwidetoys.com). Each client will also send updates only to its own DNS server.  This means that client1.contoso.com will register its IP 192.168.0.10 with dns1.contoso.com, and winxp1.worldwidetoys.com will register its IP 192.168.0.20 with ns1.worldwidetoys.com.  These two records will never be synched between dns1.contoso.com and ns1.worldwidetoys.com.  Therefore, when winxp1.worldwidetoys.com asks ns1.worldwidetoys.com “who has 192.168.0.10?”, ns1.worldwidetoys.com will answer “nobody!”.

The DNS admin must fix this problem by manually registering all of the records from ns1.worldwidetoys.com in the zone stored in dns1.contoso.com, deleting the 0.168.192.in-addr.arpa zone from ns1.worldwidetoys.com, and then setting up a forwarder or conditional forwarder to dns1.contoso.com.  Now, that same query results in ns1.worldwidetoys.com looking in its own database, finding no answer, and reaching out to its forwarders to ask, “who has 192.168.0.10?”.  Similarly, when winxp1.worldwidetoys.com goes to register 192.168.0.20, it is directed, via the SOA record, to send that registration to dns1.contoso.com.  This is why reverse zones often need to allow unsecured dynamic updates.

Forward Lookup Zones

I have a customer who needs this much data now – I’ll follow up with the Forward Lookup zones in a separate post later this week.

20
Mar
08

DCPromo Windows Server 2008 Server Core

I built a Windows Server 2008 Server Core DC last week. It’s an interesting exercise because you have to use an unattend.txt file. I found quite a few places online that listed RODC unattend.txt files, but not full read-write DC unattend.txt files. So, attached to this post you’ll find the unattend.txt I used, but also, of more interest, I’m attaching the full help file directly from the server, which I used to create the file.

FIrst, you have to install the server and set an IP address – my previous posts on IP changes on DCs all used netsh commands as well, so if you followed thouse, you should be somewhat prepared for Server Core. I already had a WIndows Server 2003 DC in the environment, so that will be my primary DNS server for the install, untill DCPromo edits the settings.
netsh interface ipv4 set address local static 10.1.1.6 255.255.255.0 10.1.1.1 10
netsh interface ipv4 set dns local static 10.1.1.5
netsh interface ipv4 set wins local static 10.1.1.5

Now networking is set up, we can rename the computer: netdom renamecomputer %computername% /NewName:dc02 and join the domain with etdom join dc02 /domain:foo.local /UserD:FOO\Administrator /reboot:5 /PasswordD:*. The “5″ after the reboot flag says to reboot 5 seconds after completion, and the “*” at the end says to prompt you for your password. I join the system to the domain manually first, because then I can WSUS patch it (if WSUS is in the network), or open up the firewall for any other patching software I have.

Once the server is back from reboot, activate, update the firewall to allow remote MMC connections (if you’re not doing that through GPO already), and install new roles.
slmgr.vbs -ato
netsh advfirewall firewall set rule group="Remote Administration" new enable=yes

The following roles are optional, depending on the service of the server. Mine has DNS and the File Server roles, but not DHCP. None of these are required to install AD Domain Services!
start /w ocsetup DNS-Server-Core-Role
start /w ocsetup DHCPServerCore
start /w ocsetup FRS-Infrastructure
start /w ocsetup DFSN-Server
start /w ocsetup DFSR-Infrastructure-ServerEdition

If this is the first Windows Server 2008 DC in your environment, you’ll need to take the Windows Server 2008 DVD to the DC with the Infrastructure Master role (required for /gpprep only) and run the following (E: assumed as DVD-ROM drive):
e:\sources\adprep\adprep.exe /forestprep
e:\sources\adprep\adprep.exe /domainprep
e:\sources\adprep\adprep.exe /domainprep /gpprep
(Also run adprep /rodcPrep if you plan on building RODCs.)

Now you’re ready to do the DCPromo itself. Create an unattend.txt file. To add a DC to an existing domain, you can use:
[DCInstall]
AutoConfigDNS=Yes
ConfirmGc=Yes
DatabasePath=E:\Windows\NTDS
LogPath=c:\windows\NTDS
RebootOnSuccess=Yes
ReplicaDomainDNSName=foo.local
ReplicaOrNewDomain=Replica
ReplicationSourceDC=dc01.foo.local
SafeModeAdminPassword=passwordhere
SysVolPath=e:\windows\SysVol
UserDomain=foo.local
/Password:passwordhere

DCPromo will wipe out the passwords when it starts, or you can fill in “*” instead of the password, to be prompted. When it’s done, the server will reboot and be a new Global Catalog / DC in your domain. DCPromo will install neccessary binaries and configure the firewall for DC Services for you. It’s quite slick.

And as promised, here are the DCPromo Unattend Options for reference for creating your own unattend.txt.

09
Dec
07

Cross-forest trusts and new error codes

If you are setting up a cross-forest trust with selective authentication (which requires a Windows Server 2003 Native mode level forest and domain), don’t forget to grant the “Allowed to Authenticate” right to the users from the trusted domain to the servers they’ll need access to in your domain. The error messages you’ll get back (replicated here in my test VM domains) don’t really say much helpful.

System Error 317 has occurred. The system cannot find message text for message number 0x*** in the message file for ***.

System Error 317

Further information about adding the “Allowed to Authenticate” right to the trusted users is available at Microsoft TechNet. If you have the opportunity to raise your forest and domain functional levels to take advantage of this, I highly recommend it. But I recommend also (even more strongly) documenting precisely what you set.




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